INFOTECH · Artal Smart Agriculture technical and scientific reports
Technical guide of nutrient deficiencies in plants and their diagnosis
Technical analysis on the effect of nutrient deficiencies on the physiology and metabolism of plants; detailed view of the visual identification of the symptoms caused by the lack of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Sulfur (S), Boron (Bo), Chlorine (Cl), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo) and Zinc (Zn).
It provides information on how to recognize these symptoms in a crop to be able to select the products needed for correction.
information: Nutrients deficiencies guide. Main nutrients’ deficiencies and their diagnosis
- The ripe,lower leaves are more affected.
- Chlorosis is developed,and it causes the leaves to turn yellow or pale green because of the chlorophyll loss.
- Yellowish general aspect of the plant,veins included.
- The leaves underside and veins sometimes show red colours.
- The leaf stalks are short and thin.
- The growth is delayed,and senescence is advanced.
- Fast recovery when Nitrogen is applied.
- The lower,ripe leaves turn yellow,and green as they dry.
- There are purple spots in the leaves of certain species like tomato, corn, lettuce or the Brossicos family.
- If this deficiency affects since the early development of the plant, the plant will be dwarf and with slow development.
- There is a decrease of the roots development,blooming and fruit setting.
- Short and slender stems.
- Number of sprouts diminishes.
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- Chlorosis appears in the edge of the lower adult leaves.
- Small black, necrotic spots between the veins and in the leaves apex.
- Resistance to pathogens lowers.
- The growth is delayed.
- The steams become weak.
- The most affected parts are the young tissues,like the foliar buds,the fruits…
- The foliar buds die and the young leaves grow deformed, bending downwards.
- The young leaves die from the margins to the center of the leaf.
- Sometimes there are petioles without leaf.
- It affects the old tissues of the plant.
- Lower,mature leaves chloritic between the veins.
- Presence of black,necrotic spots in the tissue as the deficiency progresses.
- Weak leaf stalks.
- Retracted foliar margins.
Sulphur (S) deficiency
- It is first shown on the young tissues and leaves.
- Chlorosis is first produced in the young leaves, but it progressively extends to the whole plant.
- The growth is delayed,new leaves are dwarf and less branches are produced in the trees.
- There may appear red or purple colours on the petiole and on the foliar margins. Foliar veins are very noticeable.
- The effects are seen on the young parts of the plant.
- Terminal buds die.
- The young leaves present a pale green colour on the base_, from where they die.
- Necrosis and curly deformation can be seen in the young leaves.
- Sharp decline of the roots size.
- Boron demands vary between species.
Chlorine (Cl) deficiency
- The young leaves are the most affected parts.
- There are symptoms of chlorosis and wilt of the young leaves.
- Terminal buds are alive but necrotic.
- Plants like avocado or vine show toxicity to high chlorine concentration.
- The young leaves are the most affected.
- The young leaves loose turgor (bending) and they show sunk necrotic zones.
- The newly mature leaves show wilt zones with grey colour.
- The effects are shown in the young parts of the plant./li>
- Terminal buds are alive but chloritic,without necrotic spots.
- The young leaves are chloritic but without wilt. As the condition progresses the leaves turn completely white.
- There is no presence of necrotic spots in the adult leaves and the veins are green.
- The young leaves recover the green colour right after the application of Iron.
- The young tissues are the most affected.
- Terminalbuds are alive but chloritic.
- Leaves present spotted chlorosis and they take a grayish colour as the deficiency goes on.
- Young leaves show small necrotic spots, specially close to the veins, but the veins are still green.
- Generalized effects in the whole plant.
- It shows first in the oldest leaves.
- Chlorosis appears in the whole leave.
- Foliar margins die, becoming brown.
- New leaves grow narrow and deformed.
- The excess of this element is detected by the bright orange coloration of the leaves.
- Chlorosis develops in the lower,adult leaves.
- Foliar margins retraction.
- Big necrotic spots appear between and on the veins.
- New leaves grow dwarfed.
- Short leaf stalks.
- Constant guttation (expulsion of water through the leaves).
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